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Race: The History of an Idea in the West

Race: The History of an Idea in the West - Ivan Hannaford - Régikönyvek
Race: The History of an Idea in the West - Régikönyvek Race: The History of an Idea in the West - Régikönyvek Race: The History of an Idea in the West - Régikönyvek Race: The History of an Idea in the West - Régikönyvek
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In Race: The History of an Idea in the West Ivan Hannaford guides readers through a dangerous engagement with an idea that so permeates Western thinking that we expect to find it, active or dormant, as an organizing principle in all societies. But, Hannaford shows, race is not a universal idea—not even in the West. It is an idea with a definite pedigree, and Hannaford traces that confused pedigree from Hesiod to the Holocaust and beyond. Hannaford begins by examining the ideas of race supposedly held in the ancient world, contrasting them with the complex social, philosophical, political, and scientific ideas actually held at the time. Through the medieval, Renaissance, and early modern periods he critically examines precursors in history, science, and philosophy. Hannaford distinguishes those cultures' ideas of social inclusion, rank, and role from modern ones based on race. But he also finds the first traces of the modern ideas of race in the proto-sciences of late medieval cabalism and hermeticism. Following that trail forward, he describes the establishment of the modern scientific and philosophical notions of race in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and shows how those notions became popular and pervasive, even among those who claim to be nonracist. At the same time, Hannaford sets out an alternative to a race-based notion of humanity. In his examination of ancient Greece, he finds in what was then a dazzling new idea, politics, a theory of how to bring a purposeful oneness to a society composed of diverse families, tribes, and interests. This idea of politics has a history, too, and its presence has waxed and waned through the ages. At a time when new controversies have again raised the question of whether race and social destiny are ineluctably joined as partners, Race: The History of an Idea in the West reveals that one of the partners is a phantom—medieval astrology and physiognomy disguised by pseudoscientific thought. And Race raises a difficult practical question: What price do we place on our political traditions, institutions, and civic arrangements? This ambitious volume reexamines old questions in new ways that will stimulate a wide readership.

The John Hopkins University Press
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ragasztott papír
Szélesség: 17.00cm, Magasság: 25.00cm
Foreword BERNARD CR1CK xi
Publisher's Now xvii

I Western History and Thought before Race

1 In the Beginning » 3
The Political Idea 10
The Idea of Race 14

The Ancient World » 17
The Moral Science of Eunomics 20
Plato: Eunomia versus Eugenia 30
Aristotle: Eunomics and rhe Practice of Politics 43
Condusion: Meaning and .11ethod 57

3 Transitions from Greece to Rome » 61
Greek Notions of Political Citizenship and the Practicalities of Roman 1•é 64
The Authority of Sense lmpression 72
The Atuhority of Geograph• and Language 76
The Authority of rhe Historical Record 80
The Authority of Magic: Apuleius 83
Conclusion: Challenges w the Political Way 85

4 Jews, Christians, Moors, and Barbarians » 87
T/le Rise of Faith 89
Purity of Blood and Expulsion 100
Conclusion: The Mark f Cain 125

5 Monsters and the Occult » 127
The Secret iexts 128
The Spread of the Occult 137
Conclusion: New Divisions 146

6 New Methods, New Worlds, and the Search for
Origins » 147
The Old Political Order 149
A New Historical Methodology 155
Renaissance England and the Voyages of Discovery 161
Nobility and Race, Logíc and Reoson 168
Conclusion: The Idea of Race 182

II The Racialization of the West

7 The First Stage in the Development of cm
Idea of Race, 1684-1815 » 187
Analytical Foundations and the Germans in the Woods 191
The Emergence f Anthropology 202
National Character 213
Conclusion: From Populus to Volk 232

8 The Search for Historical and Biological Origins,
1815-1870 » 235
Race and History 236
Race and Natural History 255
Conclusion: Race Is In, Politics Is Out 274
9 The Rise of the Race-State and the hwention of
A nt isemi t ism, 1870-1900 » 277
the tngibh

The Franco-Prussian War: Scientific Explanations 287
The Franco-Prussian War and German History 294
The Synthesis of History and Philosophy 306
Antisemitism: A New Formative Force 315
Conclusion: From Race-State to Race War 323

10 Race is All, 1890-1939 » 32 5
The Roots af Nazism 326
Social Darwinism, Sociology, and Race Psychology 335
Race, Politics, and History 341
The Final Synthesis 348
Conciusion: The Final Solution 365

11 Reactions, Retractions, and New Orthodoxies,
1920 to the Present » 369
The Counterhypotheses 370
The Orthodoxy of Modern Race Relations 376
lbstwar Palliatives 385
Conclusion: Politics and Political Theory 396

Notes 403
Index 419

Ivan Hannaford

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