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The Theory of Money and Credit

The Theory of Money and Credit - Ludwig von Mises - Régikönyvek
The Theory of Money and Credit - Régikönyvek The Theory of Money and Credit - Régikönyvek The Theory of Money and Credit - Régikönyvek The Theory of Money and Credit - Régikönyvek The Theory of Money and Credit - Régikönyvek The Theory of Money and Credit - Régikönyvek
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The Theory of Money and Credit integrated monetary theory into the main body of economic analysis for the first time, providing fresh, new insights into the nature of money and its role in the economy and bringing Mises into the front rank of European economists. The Theory of Money and Credit also presented a new monetary theory of the trade cycle, which, under further development by Mises’s student Nobel Laureate F. A. Hayek, came to challenge all previous trade-cycle theories. Ludwig von Mises (1881–1973) was the leading spokesman of the Austrian School of economics throughout most of the twentieth century.

Liberty Classics
Liberty Fund Inc.
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Kiadás helye:
Worzalla Publishing Co.
Kötés típusa:
ragasztott papír
Szélesség: 15.00cm, Magasság: 23.00cm
Foreword, by Murray N. Rothbard (1981) 13
Preface to the New Edition (1952) 17
Introduction, by Lionel Robbins (1934) 19
Preface to the English Edition (1934) 23
Preface to the Second German Edition (1924) 33

Chapter 1 The Function of Money
1 The General Economic Conditions for the Use of Money 41
2 The Origin of Money 42
3 The "Secondary" Functions of Money 46
Chapter 2 Ön the Measurement of Value
1 The Immeasurability of Subjective Use-Values 51
2 Total Value 58
3 Money as a Price Index 61
Chapter 3 The Various Kinds of Money
I Money and Money Substitutes 63
2 The Pev culiarities of Money Substitutes 67
3 Commodity Money, Credit Money, and Fiat Money 73
4 The Commodity Money of the Past and of the Present 76
Chapter 4 Money and the State
The Position of the State in the Market 83
2 The Legal Concept of Money 84
3 The Influence of the State on the Monetary System 87

Chapter 5 Money as an Economic Good
1 Money Neither a Production Good nor a Consumption Good 95
2 Money as Part of Private Capital 102,
3 Money Not a Part of Social Capital 1 o7
Chapter 6 The Enemies of Money
1 Money in the Socialist Community 109
2 Money Cranks 111

Chapter 7 The Concept of the Value of Money
1 Subjective and Objective Factors in the Theory of the
Value of Money 117
2 The Objective Exchange Value of Money 120
3 The Problems Involved in the Theory of the Value of Money 122
Chapter 8 The Determinants of the Objective Exchange Value, or
Purchasing Power, of Money
(I) The Element of Continuity in the Objective Exchange Value of Money
The Dependence of the Subjective Valuation of Money on the
Existence of Objective Exchange Value 129
2 The Necessity for a Value Independent of the Monetary
Function Before an Object Can Serve as Money 131
3 The Significance of Preexisting Prices in the Determination of
Market Exchange Ratios 133
4 The Applicability of the Marginal-Utility Theory to Money 136
5 "Monetary" and "Nonmonetary" Influences Affecting the
Objective Exchange Value of Money 145
(II) Fluctuations in the Objective Exchange Value of Money Evoked by
Changes in the RaHo Between the Supply of Money and the Demand
for It
6 The Quantity Theory 146
7 The Stock of Money and the Demand for Money 153
8 The Consequences of an Increase in the Quantity of Money
While the Demand for Money Remains Unchanged or Does
Not Increase to the Same Extent 16o
9 Criticism of Some Arguments Against the Quantity Theory 168
ro Further Applications of the Quantity Theory 174
(III) A Special Cause of Variations in the Objective Exchange Value of
Money Arising from the Peculiarities of Indirect Exchange
"Dearness of Living" 177
12 Wagner's Theory: The Influence of the Permanent
Predominance of the Supply Side over the Demand Side on
the Determination of Prices 178

13 Wieser's Theory: The Influence on the Value of Money Exerted
by a Change in the Relations Between Natural Economy and
Money Economy 180
14 The Mechanism of the Market as a Force Affecting the
Objective Exchange Value of Money 185
(IV) Excursuses
15 The Influence of the Size of the Monetary Unit and Its
Subdivisions on the Objective Exchange Value of Money 189
16 A Methodological Comment 191
Chapter 9 The Problem of the Existence of Local Differences in the
Objective Exchange Value of Money
Interlocal Price Relations 195
2 Alleged Local Differences in the Purchasing Power of Money 197
3 Alleged Local Differences in the Cost of Living 200
Chapter 10 The Exchange Ratio Between Money of Different Kinds
The Twofold Possibility of the Coexistenee of Different Kinds of
Money 205
2 The Static or Natural Exchange Ratio Between Different Kinds
of Money 207
Chapter 11 The Problem of Measuring the Objective Exchange Value of
Money and Variations in It
1 The History of the Problem 215
2 The Nature of the Problem 216
3 Methods of Calculating Index Numbers 217
4 Wieser's Refinement of the Methods of Calculating Index
Numbers 219
5 The Practical Utility of Index Numbers 222
Chapter 12 The Social Consequences of Variations in the Objective
Exchange Value of Money
The Exchange of Present Goods for Future Goods 225
2 Economic Calculation and Accountancy 234
3 Social Consequences of Variations in the Value of Money VVhen
Only One Kind of Money Is Employed 237
4 The Consequences of Variations in the Exchange Ratio
Between Two Kinds of Money 243
Chapter 13 Monetary Policy
Monetary Policy Defined 247
2 The Instruments of Monetary Policy 250
3 Inflationism 251
4 Restrictionism or Deflationism • 262
5 Invariability of the Objective Exchange Value of Money as the
Aim of Monetary Policy 268
6 The Limits of Monetary Policy 270
7 Excursus: The Concepts Inflation and Deflation 271

Chapter 14 The Monetary Policy of Etatism 8 Foreign Bills of Exchange as a Component of the Redemption

1 The Monetary Theory of Etatism 275 Fund 374

2 National Prestige and the Rate of Exchange 277

3 The Regulation of Prices by Authoritative Decree 279 Chapter 19 Money, Credit, and Interest

4 The Balance-of-Payments Theory as a Basis of Currency Policy 282 Ön the Nature of the Problem 377

5 The Suppression of Speculation 286 2 The Connection Between Variations in the Ratio Between the

Stock of Money and the Demand for Money and Fluctuations

in the Rate of Interest 384
PART THREE The Connection Between the Equilibrium Rate and the Money
MONEY AND BANKING Rate of Interest 388

Chapter 15 The Business of Banking 4 The Influence of the Interest Policy of the Credit-issuing Banks
on Production 396
1 Types of Banking Activity 293
2 The Banks as Negotiators of Credit 5 Credit and Economic Crises 403
3 The Banks as Issuers of Fiduciary Media 296 Chapter 20 Problems of Credit Policy

4 Deposits as the Origin of Circulation Credit 300 (1) Prefatory Remark

5 The Granting of Circulation Credit 304 1 The Conflict of Credit Policies 405

6 Fiduciary Media and the Nature of Indirect Exchange 308
(11) Problems of Credit Policy Before the War
Chapter 16 The Evolution of Fiduciary Media 2 Peel's Act 406

The Two Ways of Issuing Fiduciary Media 311 3 The Nature of Discount Policy 412

2 Fiduciary Media and the Clearing System 314 4 The Gold-Premium Policy 416
3 Fiduciary Media in Domestic Trade 320 5 Systems Similar to the Gold-Premium Policy 421

4 Fiduciary Media in International Trade 325 6 The Nonsatisfaction of the So-called Illegitimate Demand for

Money 423
Chapter 17 Fiduciary Media and the Demand for Money
The Influence of Fiduciary Media on the Demand for Money in 7 Other Measures for Strengthening the Stock of Metal Held by

the Central Banks-of-lssue 425
the Narrower Sense 331
8 The Promotion of Check and Clearing Transactions as a Means
2 The Fluctuations in the Demand for Money 334 426
of Reduting the Rate of Discount
3 The Elasticity of the System of Reciprocal Cancellation 336

4 The Elasticity of a Credit Circulation Based on Bills, Especially (III) Problems of Credit Policy in the Period Immediately After the War

on Commodity Bills 339 9 The Gold-Exchange Standard 429
5 The Significance of the Exclusive Employment of Bills as Cover lo A Return to a Gold Currency 432

for Fiduciary Media I: The Problem of the Freedom of the Banks 434
6 The Periodical Rise and Fali in the Extent to Which Bank Credit 12 Fisher's Proposal for a Commodity Standard 438

Is Requisitioned 348 :3 The Basic Questions of Future Currency Policy 445

7 The Influence of Fiduciary Media on Fluctuations in the

Objective Exchange Value of Money 352
Chapter 18 The Redemption of Fiduciary Media
1 The Necessity for Complete Equivalence Between Money and MONETARY RECONSTRUCTION

Money Substitutes (This part was written in 1952 and first appeared in the
2 The Return of Fiduciary Media to the Issuer on Account of
Lack of Confidence on the Part of the Holders 1953 American edition by Yale University Press)
3 The Case Against the Issue of Fiduciary Media
359 Impler 2: The Principle of Sound Money
4 The Redemption Fund 361 Tlw Classico' Idea of Sound Money 453

5 The So-called Banking Type of Cover for Fiduciary Media 368 2 The Vit.:t:es and Alleged Shortcomings of the Gold Standard 456
6 The Significance of Short-Term Cover 371 'I he 1::111-Employment Doctrine 463

7 The Security of the Investments of the Credit-issuing Banks 372 ,1 I I te 1;illergency Argument in Favor of Inflation 466

Chapter 22 Contemporary Currency Systems
1 The lnflexible Gold Standard 471
2 The Flexible Standard 472
3 The Freely Vacillating Currency 473
4 The Illusive Standard 474
Chapter 23 The Return to Sound Money
Monetary Policy and the Present Trend Toward All-round
Planning 477
2 The Integral Gold Standard 480
3 Currency Reform in Ruritania 485
4 The United States' Return to a Sound Currency 490
5 The Controversy Concerning the Choice of the New Gold
Pari ty 495
6 Concluding Remarks 499
Appendix A Ön the Classification of Monetary Theories
(This Appendix was first published as a journal articte in 1917-19 r8, it
was fater used as a chapter in the znd Gernian edition of 1924, but was
then relegated to the Appendix in the Batson translation of 1934)
Catallactic and Acatallactic Monetary Doctrine 503
2 The "State" Theory of Money 506
3 Schumpeter's Attempt to Fo-rmulate a Catallactic
Claim Theory 512
4 "Metallism" 515
5 The Concept of "Metallism" in Wieser and Philippovich 518
6 Note: The Relation of the Controversy About Nominalism to
the Problems of the Two English Schools of Banking Theory 524
Appendix B Translator's Note on the Translation of Certain
Technical Terms 525
Index 527
Biographical Note 539
Note on Sílver Demereteia 541

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